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Should the US Census Count Illegal Immigrants?

Matters of Money and Representation

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Should the US Census Count Illegal Immigrants?
Mark Wilson/Getty Images
Updated March 25, 2010
Illegal immigrants - over 12 million of them -- living and often working in the United States, and they are counted in the decennial U.S. census. Should they be?

Who the Census Counts Now and Why
As currently required by law, the U.S. Census Bureau attempts to count all persons in the U.S. living in residential structures, including prisons, dormitories and similar "group quarters" in the official decennial census. Persons counted in the census include citizens, legal immigrants, non-citizen long-term visitors and illegal (or undocumented) immigrants.

Why the Census Should Count Illegal Aliens
A Matter of Money
Not counting illegal aliens costs cities and states federal money, resulting in a reduction of services to all residents. The census count is used by Congress in deciding how to distribute more than $400 billion annually to state, local and tribal governments. The formula is simple: the greater the population your state or city reports, the more federal money it might get.

Cities provide the same level of services like police, fire and emergency medical treatment to illegal immigrants as they do to U.S. citizens. In some states, like California, illegal immigrants attend public schools. In 2004, the Federation for American Immigration Reform estimated the cost to California cities for education, health care and incarceration of illegal immigrants at $10.5 billion per year.

According to a PricewaterhouseCoopers study released by the U.S. Census Monitoring Board, a total of 122,980 people went uncounted in Georgia during the 2000 census. As a result, the state will lose out on some $208.8 million in federal funding through 2012, a loss of about $1,697 per uncounted person.
Why the Census Should NOT Count Illegal Aliens
A Matter of Equal Representation and Politics
Counting illegal immigrants in the census undermines the fundamental principal of American representative democracy that every voter has an equal voice. Through the census-based process of apportionment, states with large numbers of illegal aliens will unconstitutionally gain members in the U.S. House of Representatives thus robbing the citizen-voters in other states of their rightful representation.

In addition, an inflated population count resulting from the inclusion of illegal immigrants would increase the number of votes some states get in the electoral college system, the actual process of electing the President of the United States.

In short, including illegal immigrants in the census count will unjustly bestow additional political power in states where lax enforcement of immigration laws attract large populations of illegal aliens, such as California, Texas and other states in which Democrats seek to gain greater influence over national politics.

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